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Manganese is derived mainly from vegetable matter for the essential processes of growth and reproduction.
Manganese is an important trace mineral whose functions include:
Manganese is also a component of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (S.O.D.).
Deficiency of manganese has only been observed in experimental studies, and U.K. diets are therefore thought to be rich enough in this mineral at least to prevent acute deficiency symptoms.
Upper safe level for daily supplementation = 15mg
There is no EC Recommended Daily Allowance for Manganese.
Average daily dietary intakes in Britain are estimated at 4.6mg.
The use of manganese as a therapy is not common as it is not generally acknowledged that manganese deficiency can arise under normal conditions. Nevertheless, it may benefit people with joint or bone problems by suppressing the inflammatory process (1).
Manganese may be used for diseases in which a stimulation of natural killer cells and similar immune responses are required. Manganese exerts its effects by a mechanism dependant upon the adhesion of leucocytes (white blood cells) to antigens (2).
Manganese is one of the safest of all Elementss, because when excess is consumed, absorption is very low, and that which is absorbed is excreted efficiently via the bile and kidneys. Toxicity of manganese has only been noted in miners exposed to manganese ores and continually absorbing dust through the lungs.
There is no known drug interactions or contra-indications for manganese.
Tea is estimated to supply half the amount of manganese in the British diet. Otherwise, whole grains, nuts and avocados are rich sources, with other fruits and vegetables containing moderate amounts. The milling of grains removes 73% of manganese.
1. Dowling EJ. Assessment of a human recombinant manganese superoxide dismutase in models of Inflammation. Free Radic Res Commun, 18;5:291-298, 1993.